Characteristics of railway freight, international railway cargo transportation

(A) characteristics of railway freight transport

railway is the main artery of the national economy, modernization of railway transport is the major transport operators and one of the mode of transport, it compared with other modes of transport, has the following main features:

1. Accuracy and strong continuity of rail transport. Rail transport is hardly affected by climate, throughout the day and night to regular, regular and accurate operation.

2. Rail transport faster. Railway freight rates per day and up to hundreds of kilometers, goods vehicles up to about 100 km/h, much higher than the sea.

3. Volume is relatively large. A cargo train carrying 3000~5000t goods by rail, is much higher than air transport and motor transport.

4. Railway transportation costs are lower. Rail freight costs only at a fraction of the cost of automobile transportation to one of more than 10 transport fuel consumption is about auto transport one-twentieth.

5. Safe and reliable railway transport, risk is far smaller than maritime transport.

6. The initial investment. Rail transport need to lay track, construction of bridges and tunnels, road building projects difficult and complex; need to consume large quantities of steel, wood; occupied land, their initial investment than other modes of transport.

in addition, railway transport by the transport, maintenance, vehicles, public works, electricity and other services sectors, should have a strong sense of accuracy and consistency, and must be coordinated between the various business units, this requires the co-ordination arrangements in respect of transport command, unified leadership.

(b) the role of the international transport of goods by rail

1. Conducive to the development of trade with European and Asian countries

by rail into Eurasia, for the move in the development of Shanghai, Near East and European trade to provide favorable conditions. In the early days, our country's international trade limited mainly to Eastern European countries, rail transport around 50% per cent of China's total import and export cargo transport, was the major modes of transport for our import and export trade. After 60 's, China's development of the carriage of goods by sea, rail transport although the proportion of the import and export of goods has declined, but its role is still very important. 50, China and North Korea, Mongolia, and Viet Nam, the former Soviet Union's import and export goods, remains largely through the railway transportation; in China and Western Europe, Northern Europe and some countries in the Middle East through international rail transport for transportation of import and export goods.

2. Contributing to the development of trade with Hong Kong and Macao regions, and entrepot trade via Hong Kong

contact the railway transport was Chinese in Hong Kong and Macao, an important mode of transport for trade. Hong Kong and Macao needed supplies of food and supplies from the Mainland, with the continuous expansion of the Mainland's exports to the region, increasing its traffic. Transportation to Macao, meet the requirements of quality, adequate, balanced, timely, politically and economically important. In order to ensure market supply in the area, opened a direct express train from the Mainland, the prosperity and stability of Hong Kong and Macao markets, and plays a positive role in the economic development of the region.

Hong Kong is the world's leading free port, has very close contact with the world, sea and air, more regular flights, as a base for transit trade, land, land, air and sea transport, China and Southeast Asia, Europe, America, Africa, and Oceania countries and trade, to ensure that China's export plays an important role.

3. On import and export goods in the port distribution and circulation among the various provinces, municipalities play an important role

our country is vast in seaborne imports most of the goods by rail from ports to consignees in the Mainland, seaborne exports, majority of them are from the Mainland by rail to the port set, so rail transport is the transport of international goods important distributed. Transportation between provinces and regions of foreign trade goods, raw materials, semi-finished products and packaging materials, mainly through the railway transportation. China's most international trade import and export of goods by rail this link, rail transport plays an important role in the international transport of goods.

4. Use the Eurasian Continental Bridge transport is the essential way

on the Continental Bridge transport refers to the city, railway or highway transportation system for the Middle bridge, connects the ends of the city, ocean container transport of coherent way.

Continental Bridge transport is generally to the container for the media, using the rail system to transport. China is now running the Siberian continental bridge and the new Eurasian Continental Bridge railway container transportation is safe, rapid, economical advantages. This mode of transportation for the development of the middle and Near East, and Europe trade facilitated conditions of carriage. In order to meet the needs of China's economic and trade development, carried out this land bridge container transport is an essential way, will promote the development of international trade with these countries and regions.